Mitral Regurgitation

Brief Information

Valve incompetence allows backflow from ventricle to atrium. Caused by rheumatic fever, myocardial infarction, myxoma
Type and Detection Heard best at apex; loudest there, transmitted into left axilla.
Findings on Examination

Holosystolic, plateau-shaped intensity, high pitch, harsh blowing quality, often quite loud; radiates from apex to base or to left axilla; thrill may be palpable at apex during systole. If mild, late systolic murmur crescendos; if severe, early systolic intensity decrescendos; apical thrust more to left and down in ventricular hypertrophy.
Heart Sound

S1 intensity diminished; S2 more intense with P2 often accented; S3 often present; S3-S4 gallop common in late disease.

Heart Sound
Compare with
Normal Heart Sound (441K)
Aortic Stenosis (392K)
Mitral Stenosis (424K)
Pulmonary Stenosis (438K)
Aortic Regurgitation (491K)

Y.E. Kocabasoglu and R.H. Henning

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