In aortic stenosis, left ventricular outflow is reduced and a pressure load on the left ventricle is imposed by the significant narrowing of the aortic valve. A harsh mid-systolic murmur is usually heard maximally over the aortic area and it frequently extends to the carotid arteries as well. Causes include degenerative calcific aortic stenosis (usually in elderly patients), calcification usually on a congenital bicuspid valve and rheumatic heart disease.
Aortic stenosis in wav format
stenosis in real audio format
Aortic regurgitation is caused by an incompetent aortic valve that allows regurgitation of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle as long as the aortic diastolic pressure exceeds the left ventricular diastolic pressure. The murmur is usually high-pitched and tends to merge into S2 - as in this case. Aortic regurgitation may be acute or chronic. Acute aortic regurgitation may be due to infective endocarditis or aortic root dilatation due to Marfan's syndrome, aortic aneurysm or hypertension. Chronic aortic regurgitation can be due to valvular causes such as rheumatic heart disease, congenital (bicuspid valve or ventricular septal defect) or seronegative arthropathy (especially ankylosing spondylitis) or aortic root dilatation due to Marfan's syndrome, aortitis (syphilis, Marfan's syndrome, seronegative arthropathies, rheumatoid arthritis, etc) or aortic aneurysm.
Aortic regurgitation in wav format
regurgitation in real audio format
This is a congenital narrowing of the aorta just distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery. The etiology appears related to the abnormal position of tissues involved in closure of the ductus arteriosus. It is also associated with Turner's syndrome and the bicuspid aortic valve.
Coarctation of the Aorta in wav format
of the Aorta in real audio format